How to Design Solar PV System

What is solar PV system?

Solar photovoltaic system or Solar power system is one ofrenewable energy system which uses PV modules to convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity generated can be either stored or used directly, fed back into grid line or combined with one or more other electricity generators or more renewable energy source. Solar PV system is very reliable and clean source of electricity that can suit a wide range of applications such as residence, industry, agriculture, livestock, etc.

Major system components

Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances).
  •   PV module – converts sunlight into DC electricity.
  •   Solar charge controller – regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to 
      battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life.
  •   Inverter – converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC 
      appliances or fed back into grid line.
  •   Battery – stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand.
  •   Load – is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, 
      refrigerator, etc. 
  •   Auxiliary energy sources – is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources.

Solar PV system sizing

1. Determine power consumption demands

The first step in designing a solar PV system is to find out the total power and energy consumption of all loads that need to be supplied by the solar PV system as follows:

     1.1 Calculate total Watt-hours per day for each appliance used.
           Add the Watt-hours needed for all appliances together to get the total Watt-hours per day which 
           must be delivered to the appliances.

     1.2 Calculate total Watt-hours per day needed from the PV modules.
            Multiply the total appliances Watt-hours per day times 1.3 (the energy lost in the system) to get 
            the total Watt-hours per day which must be provided by the panels.

2. Size the PV modules

Different size of PV modules will produce different amount of power. To find out the sizing of PV module, the total peak watt produced needs. The peak watt (Wp) produced depends on size of the PV module and climate of site location. We have to consider “panel generation factor” which is different in each site location. For Thailand, the panel generation factor is 3.43. To determine the sizing of PV modules, calculate as follows:

     2.1 Calculate the total Watt-peak rating needed for PV modules
           Divide the total Watt-hours per day needed from the PV modules (from item 1.2) by 3.43 to get    
           the total Watt-peak rating needed for the PV panels needed to operate the appliances.

     2.2 Calculate the number of PV panels for the system
           Divide the answer obtained in item 2.1 by the rated output Watt-peak of the PV modules available 
           to you. Increase any fractional part of result to the next highest full number and that will be the 
           number of PV modules required.

Result of the calculation is the minimum number of PV panels. If more PV modules are installed, the system will perform better and battery life will be improved. If fewer PV modules are used, the system may not work at all during cloudy periods and battery life will be shortened.

3. Inverter sizing

An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input rating of the inverter should never be lower than the total watt of appliances. The inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery.

For stand-alone systems, the inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of Watts you will be using at one time. The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total Watts of appliances. In case of appliance type is motor or compressor then inverter size should be minimum 3 times the capacity of those appliances and must be added to the inverter capacity to handle surge current during starting.

For grid tie systems or grid connected systems, the input rating of the inverter should be same as PV array rating to allow for safe and efficient operation.

4. Battery sizing

The battery type recommended for using in solar PV system is deep cycle battery. Deep cycle battery is specifically designed for to be discharged to low energy level and rapid recharged or cycle charged and discharged day after day for years. The battery should be large enough to store sufficient energy to operate the appliances at night and cloudy days. To find out the size of battery, calculate as follows:

     4.1 Calculate total Watt-hours per day used by appliances.
     4.2 Divide the total Watt-hours per day used by 0.85 for battery loss.
     4.3 Divide the answer obtained in item 4.2 by 0.6 for depth of discharge.
     4.4 Divide the answer obtained in item 4.3 by the nominal battery voltage.
     4.5 Multiply the answer obtained in item 4.4 with days of autonomy (the number of days that you 
           need the system to operate when there is no power produced by PV panels) to get the required 
           Ampere-hour capacity of deep-cycle battery.

Battery Capacity (Ah) = Total Watt-hours per day used by appliancesx Days of autonomy
(0.85 x 0.6 x nominal battery voltage)

5. Solar charge controller sizing

The solar charge controller is typically rated against Amperage and Voltage capacities. Select the solar charge controller to match the voltage of PV array and batteries and then identify which type of solar charge controller is right for your application. Make sure that solar charge controller has enough capacity to handle the current from PV array.

For the series charge controller type, the sizing of controller depends on the total PV input current which is delivered to the controller and also depends on PV panel configuration (series or parallel configuration).

According to standard practice, the sizing of solar charge controller is to take the short circuit current (Isc) of the PV array, and multiply it by 1.3

Solar charge controller rating = Total short circuit current of PV array x 1.3

Remark: For MPPT charge controller sizing will be different. (SeeBasics of MPPT Charge Controller)

Example: A house has the following electrical appliance usage:

One 18 Watt fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast used 4 hours per day.One 60 Watt fan used for 2 hours per day.One 75 Watt refrigerator that runs 24 hours per day with compressor run 12 hours and off 12 hours.

The system will be powered by 12 Vdc, 110 Wp PV module.

1. Determine power consumption demands

Total appliance use = (18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 24 x 0.5 hours) = 1,092 Wh/dayTotal PV panels energy needed = 1,092 x 1.3 = 1,419.6 Wh/day.

2. Size the PV panel

2.1 Total Wp of PV panel capacity 
      needed= 1,419.6 / 3.4 = 413.9 Wp2.2  Number of PV panels needed= 413.9 / 110 = 3.76 modules

          Actual requirement = 4 modules
          So this system should be powered by at least 4 modules of 110 Wp PV module.

3. Inverter sizing
    Total Watt of all appliances = 18 + 60 + 75 = 153 W
    For safety, the inverter should be considered 25-30% bigger size. 
    The inverter size should be about 190 W or greater.

4. Battery sizing
    Total appliances use = (18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 12 hours)
    Nominal battery voltage = 12 V
    Days of autonomy = 3 days

    Battery capacity = [(18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 12 hours)] x 3 
                                                (0.85 x 0.6 x 12)
    Total Ampere-hours required 535.29 Ah
    So the battery should be rated 12 V 600 Ah for 3 day autonomy.

5. Solar charge controller sizing
    PV module specification
    Pm = 110 Wp
    Vm = 16.7 Vdc
    Im = 6.6 A
    Voc = 20.7 A
    Isc = 7.5 A
    Solar charge controller rating = (4 strings x 7.5 A) x 1.3 = 39 A
    So the solar charge controller should be rated 40 A at 12 V or greater.

How to remove virus from Android: Delete a virus from your Android phone or tablet. Plus, how to avoid Gunpoder virus and other Android malware

If you believe your Android phone or tablet has a virus then the good news is it’s really easy to delete. Here’s how to remove a virus from Android. Plus, we show you how to avoid the Gunpoder virus and other Android malware.

Your Typing Style Can Reveal Your Emotions

While computers outperform humans in most mathematical tasks and can do complex calculations that people never could, there’s one area where machines haven’t quite achieved humanlike smarts: emotional intelligence. But now, a new computer program can recognize people’s emotions based on how they type, paving the way for computers that could one day be smarter than humans — a concept called “the singularity.”

In a new study, researchers asked a small group of people to type a block of sample text, and then analyzed the keystrokes and characteristics to see if they could identify any of seven differentemotional states: joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame or guilt.

The emotions that the program recognized with the greatest degree of accuracy were joy (87 percent of the time) and anger (81 percent of the time).

How to use the SysKey utility to secure the Windows

How to use the SysKey utility to secure the Windows Security Accounts Manager database..
Configure Windows System Key Protection

To Configure Windows System Key Protection, follow these steps:
At a command prompt, type syskey, and then press ENTER.
In the Securing the Windows Account Database dialog box, note that the Encryption Enabled option is selected and is the only option available. When this option is selected, Windows will always encrypt the SAM database.
Click Update.
Click Password Startup if you want to require a password to start Windows. Use a complex password that contains a combination of upper case and lower case letters, numbers, and symbols. The startup password must be at least 12 characters long and can be up to 128 characters long.

Note If you must remotely restart a computer that requires a password (if you use the Password Startup option), a person must be at the local console during the restart. Use this option only if a trusted security administrator will be available to type the Startup password.
Click System Generated Password if you do not want to require a startup password.

Select either of the following options:
Click Store Startup Key on Floppy Disk to store the system startup password on a floppy disk. This requires that someone insert the floppy disk to start the operating system.
Click Store Startup Key Locally to store the encryption key on the hard disk of the local computer. This is the default option.
Click OK two times to complete the procedure.

Remove the SAM encryption key from the local hard disk by using the Store Startup Key on Floppy Disk option for optimum security. This provides the highest level of protection for the SAM database.

Always create a back-up floppy disk if you use the Store Startup Key on Floppy Disk option. You can restart the system remotely if someone is available to insert the floppy disk into the computer when it restarts.

Send SMS to charge your cellphone

Out of battery? Just send a text! People living off-grid can now power their phones simply by sending a text message.

A London-based company Buffalo Grid has introduced a solar-powered cellphone charging station that is activated by text message.

A patchy or absent power grid poses a conundrum of problems for rural areas in the developing world, particularly in Africa and Asia, where the use of cellphones is rapidly rising.

The company’s basic technology, which was recently trialled in Uganda, should help tackle this issue, ‘NewScientist’ reported.

The battery extracts power from the solar panel using a technique called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). A 60-watt solar panel charges a battery.

A solar panel’s power output is dictated by environmental conditions, such as temperature and the amount of sunlight, as well as the resistance of the circuits connected to it.

MPPT monitors the conditions and changes the resistance to ensure the maximum possible power output at any given time.

The innovation lies in how the stored power is released to charge a phone. A customer sends a text message, which in Uganda costs 110 shillings, to the device. Once it receives the message, an LED above a socket on the battery lights up, indicating that it is ready to charge a phone.

At the Konokoyi coffee cooperative in Uganda, each text message allows a phone to be charged for 1.5 hours. A fully charged Buffalo Grid unit can last for three days, has up to 10 charging points and charges 30 to 50 phones a day.

To bring the cost down further, Buffalo Grid hopes to co-opt the cellphone network operators into subsidising power for charging the phones, or even making it free.

“When you bring power to phones that don’t have any, people will use them more,” said Buffalo Grid’s Daniel Becerra.

“Instead of paying for the charge, people will spend more on airtime,” Becerra said.


10 ways companies are using Hadoop (for more than ads)

If you just pay attention to largest Hadoop users, you might think the platform is just a way of powering search engines or analyzing customer behavior for ad-serving. Of course that’s not the case, but finding those broader use cases can still be kind of difficult.

If you just pay attention to the world’s largest Hadoop users, you might think the platform is just a better technology for powering search engines or analyzing customer behavior for ad-serving. Of course that’s not the case, but finding those broader use cases can still be kind of difficult. That’s too bad, because the more we highlight what’s possible, the easier it will be to discover entirely new uses.

Today, at a launch event for the latest version of its namesake Hadoop distribution, Cloudera COO Kirk Dunn as well as a few panelists noted some of those use cases. I’ve uncovered a few throughout my years of covering the Hadoop space, too. With that in mind, here are 10 uses cases but I know there are a lot more floating about — feel free to share them in the comments.

Online travel. Dunn noted that Cloudera’s Hadoop distribution currently powers about 80 percent of all online travel booked worldwide. He didn’t mention users by name, but last year I covered how one of those customers, Orbitz Worldwide, uses Hadoop.
Mobile data. This another of Dunn’s anonymous statistics — that Cloudera powers “70 percent of all smartphones in the U.S.” I assume he’s talking about the storage and processing of mobile data by wireless providers, and a little market-share math probably could help one pinpoint the customers.
E-commerce. More anonymity, but Dunn says Cloudera powers more than 10 million online merchants in the United States. Dunn said one large retailer (I assume eBay, which is a major Hadoop user and manages a large marketplace of individual sellers that would help account for those 10-plus million merchants) added 3 percent to its net profits after using Hadoop for just 90 days.
Energy discovery. During a panel at Cloudera’s event, a Chevron representative explained just one of many ways his company uses Hadoop: to sort and process data from ships that troll the ocean collecting seismic data that might signify the presence of oil reserves.
Energy savings. At the other end of the spectrum from Chevron is Opower, which uses Hadoop to power its service that suggests ways for consumers to save money on energy bills. A representative on the panel noted that certain capabilities, such as accurate and long-term bill forecasting were hardly feasible without Hadoop.
Infrastructure management. This is a rather common use case, actually, as more companies (including Etsy, which I profiled recently) are gathering and analyzing data from their servers, switches and other IT gear. At the Cloudera event, a NetApp rep noted how his company collects device logs (it has more than a petabyte worth at present) from its entire install base and stores them in Hadoop.
Image processing. A startup called Skybox Imaging is using Hadoop to store and process images from the high-definition images its satellites will regularly capture as they attempt to detect patterns of geographic change. Skybox recently raised $70 million for its efforts.
Fraud detection. This is another oldie but goodie, used by both financial services organizations and intelligence agencies. One of those users, Zions Bancorporation, explained to me recently how a move to Hadoop lets it store all the data it can on customer transactions and spot anomalies that might suggest fraudulent behavior.
IT security. As with infrastructure management, companies also use Hadoop to process machine-generated data that can identify malware and cyber attack patterns. Last year, we told the story of ipTrust, which uses Hadoop to assign reputation scores to IP address, which lets other security products decide whether to accept traffic from those sources.
Health care. I suspect there are many ways Hadoop can benefit health care practitioners, but one of them goes back to its search roots. Last year, I profiled Apixio, which uses Hadoop to power its service that leverages semantic analysis to provide doctors, nurses and others more-relevant answers to their questions about patients’ health.


source –

Modeling your business processes with IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition

WebSphere Lombardi Edition Version 7.1 (hereafter called Lombardi) provides a flexible platform for rapid delivery and improvement of your business process applications. Lombardi V7.1 is a comprehensive BPM offering that enables companies to continually improve their end-to-end business processes. With Lombardi, teams can build, manage, and optimize process applications that orchestrate human collaboration and system interactions.
This article gives you an overview of the Lombardi product and architecture. Future articles in this series will cover basic and advanced process modeling, Coaches, monitoring and reporting, and simulation and optimization. We’ll use a purchase order process as the scenario throughout the series.
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A business process is a collection of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular objective, involving both human and system interactions. A business process implies a strong emphasis on how the work is done within an organization, in contrast to a product’s focus on what. A process is a specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs: a structure for action.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a diagramming standard for drawing business processes. It’s a format that is understandable to business users because it looks like a flowchart –- you don’t need a lot of training to understand how to use it. And it’s also understandable to anybody in IT who might be involved in the process. The objective of BPMN is to support business process management (BPM) by both technical users and business users by providing a notation that is intuitive to business users but still able to represent complex process semantics. Lombardi V7.1 is one of the first BPM platforms to support BPMN.
Lombardi V7.1 is compliant with all key BPM-related standards, and its design tools provide a BPMN-compliant process modeling environment.
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Lombardi is an integrated set of Eclipse-based development tools, together with a web-based user portal and dashboards, and a common runtime platform. These technologies provide design, simulation, rules definition, process execution and integration, monitoring and optimization functions. The main perspectives in Lombardi, which support all activities from design through simulation, deployment, monitoring and optimization, share a common repository, which called the Shared Model, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Shared Model

Lombardi includes the following components, as shown in Figure 2, which illustrates a typical Lombardi configuration. For different development and deployment phases, the Process Server and Performance Data Warehouse can be installed in multiple staging, test, and production environments, which are centrally controlled by the Process Center.
• Process Center
The Process Center provides a central development environment and repository for multiple process authors working in the Process Center Console and other interfaces in Lombardi Authoring Environment. It includes a Process Center Server and a Performance Data Warehouse, which enable you to build and run process applications and also store performance data for testing and playback purposes during development.
• Process Server
The Process Server executes the processes and services built in Lombardi Authoring Environment, stored in the Process Center repository, and then installed in a runtime environment.
• Performance Data Warehouse
The Performance Data Warehouse collects and aggregates process data according to tracking requirements established in Lombardi Authoring Environment.

Figure 2. Lombardi components

The following components make up the process modeling and management interface:
• Authoring Environment
Lombardi Authoring Environment consists of several interfaces that enable process authors to model, implement, simulate, and inspect business processes. Authoring Environment users can create process models, services, and other assets within process applications.
• Process Center Console
From the Process Center Console, you can create process applications and toolkits and grant other users access to them. The Process Center Console can help you manage and maintain the Lombardi repository, including managing process applications, workspaces, and snapshots. It also enables the installation of process applications on Process Servers in runtime environments.
• Process Admin Console
The Process Admin Console provides an interface that enables administrators to configure and maintain the Process Servers in any configured runtime environment, such as staging, test or production environments. It also enables administrators to configure and maintain the Process Center Server.
• Performance Admin Console
The Performance Admin Console provides an interface that enables administrators to configure and maintain Lombardi Performance Data Warehouses in any configured runtime environment, such as staging, test or production environments. It also enables administrators to configure and maintain the Performance Data Warehouse included in the Process Center.
• Process Portal
The Process Portal provides an interface that enables process participants to perform assigned tasks, view the history of tasks, and view the performance of their processes and teams. Using Process Portal, process participants can connect to the Process Center Server or a Process Server in any configured runtime environment, such as test or production environments.
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Modeling your process using Authoring Environment
Lombardi provides an Eclipse-based platform for process development. To get started using the authoring environment for business process modeling, do the following:
1. Start the server by selecting Start => IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition 7 => Start Servers. To open the Authoring Environment, select Start => IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition 7 => Lombardi Authoring Environment. The default login user account and password are both tw_admin.
2. The first time you start the authoring environment, it opens to the Process Center Console, which enables you to create and manage process applications, install snapshots on test and production servers, and perform other tasks.
Click the Process Apps tab, and select Create New Process App, as shown in Figure 3.
The acronym for a process application must be unique and is limited to seven characters. Lombardi uses the acronym as an identifier for the process application and the library items that it contains. For example, when manipulating the items within the process application using the Lombardi JavaScript API, you can use the acronym to specify the namespace of the items.
3. In the Create New Process App dialog, enter a name (for example, Purchase Order Process and an acronym (such as, POPROC) for your process application. You can also provide an optional description. You can view the description in the Process Center Console by clicking the question mark next to the process application name.

Figure 3. Create a new process application in authoring environment

Part 2 of this series will describe in detail how to model a business process in the authoring environment.
Creating a Business Process Definition (BPD)
When you model a process in the authoring environment, you first create a Business Process Definition (BPD), as shown as Figure 4. A BPD is a reusable model of a process that defines what’s common to all runtime instances of that process model.

Figure 4. Business Process Definition

Building Human services
Build a Human service when you want a step in your BPD to create an interactive task that process participants can perform in a web-based user interface, as shown in Figure 5. When you build Human services, you include Coaches, which are the web-based forms that provide process-related data to users and collect input from those users. Coaches enable you to easily add standard fields and controls such as radio buttons, drop-down menus, and so on.
The Ajax services that you build in Lombardi are subsequently bound to Coach controls to perform functions such as automatically populating drop-down lists and enabling type-ahead capability in input fields. You can use an Ajax service to pull data dynamically from a connected data source, such as a database.

Figure 5. Create a Human service

Building Integration services
Build an Integration service when you want to integrate with an external system to complete a task, as shown in Figure 6. For example, you can build an integration service that calls a web service to do some business logic. Integration services are the only services that can include web service integration and Java™ integration components.
Use General System services when you want to orchestrate other background services, manipulate variable data, generate HTML for a Coach, or perform other actions that don’t require any integrations or business rules. General system services are likely to be called directly from a BPD or from a Human Service. General System services can include only basic service components such as scripts and cannot contain Coaches or integration components (web service integration or Java integration). General System services can be nested within any other type of service.
External activities enable you to create BPDs that include activities that are handled by systems outside of Lombardi. For example, you can build a custom application using the Lombardi web API to execute an activity, or step, in a BPD.
An Undercover Agent (UCA) is started by an event that can either be triggered by a message or on a specific schedule. When a UCA is started, it invokes a Lombardi service in response to the event. When you include a message event in a BPD, you must attach a UCA to the event to call the specified service. For example, when a message event is received from an external system, a UCA is needed to invoke the appropriate service in response to the message.
You can create and publish a web service to enable external applications to initiate a particular Lombardi service or set of services. Using the SOAP integration, external applications can also call the web service.

Figure 6. Create an Integration service

Building Rule services
You can use a Rule service, shown in Figure 7, when you want a condition to determine what implementation is invoked. For example, when a certain condition evaluates to true, Lombardi implements a JavaScript expression that you provide. Rule services cannot include Java or web service integrations directly. You can call a Rule service from any other type of service and a Rule service can call other nested services.
Key performance indicators (KPIs) are measurements that Lombardi tracks at process runtime, storing results that you can use to analyze process and task performance in the Optimizer.
Service level agreements (SLAs) can be created based on standard and custom KPIs. SLAs enable you to establish a condition for one or more activities that triggers a consequence. When you run instances of your processes, SLA consequences do not trigger until the associated activity starts or completes.

Figure 7. Create a Rule service

Managing external files
Lombardi supports adding external files to the process application, including images, style sheets, JAR files, and others. All these project assets are included in the Process Center repository. Adding these files to your process application ensures that all required assets are available and installed when your project is ready for testing or production.
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Enabling re-use through Toolkits
Toolkits are a collection of library items that can be used across multiple process applications in the Lombardi Authoring Environment. Lombardi enables process developers to re-use existing artifacts both within and across process applications through toolkits. For example, if you know several services already exist that include Coaches and other library items that other developers need, you can access and re-use those items by including them in a toolkit. Then, from your process application, you can add a dependency on the toolkit in which the library items reside. This enables you to pick one of the existing services when choosing the implementation for an activity. The items in the toolkit can also be used by other developers working in different process applications.
Authoring Environment users can create dependencies on toolkits in order to re-use the items within. When Toolkit items are updated, existing dependencies show that updates are available.
Library items in multiple toolkits can be shared across other toolkits, as well as process applications.
Create toolkits
To create a toolkit, do the following:
1. Click the Toolkits tab, and click Create New Toolkit, as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Create a new toolkit

2. In the Create New Toolkit dialog, enter a name and an acronym for your toolkit.
3. To create library items in the toolkit or perform other edits, click Open in Designer.
System Data toolkit
During Lombardi installation, the System Data Toolkit is imported into the Process Center repository. Each process application and toolkit that you create automatically includes a System Data Toolkit dependency so that you have access to the assets that all Lombardi projects require, such as standard variable types, standard charts for reports, and so on. You cannot edit or change the library items in the System Data Toolkit, but you can open the toolkit and view the items in it.
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Overview of the scenario
In this series, we’ll use a typical business scenario of a purchase order process to illustrate how to use Lombardi V7.1 to model and run the business process. As shown in Figure 9, the purchase order process is initiated by the buyer from the purchasing department according to the actual inventory and consumption. When the buyer enters the order, the process is triggered. When the process is started, the system sends a notification to the supplier who is responsible for confirming the order.

Figure 9. Purchase order process

The supplier can respond to the order through a web-based user interface as follows:
• The supplier can directly accept the order without any change. In this situation, the buyer doesn’t need to reconfirm the order.
• The supplier can accept the order with a change in the quantity and unit price of goods by filling out an “Order Change.” In this case, the buyer needs to reconfirm this order before order generation.
• The supplier can reject the order because of price or because the item is out of stock. In this case, the order will be void and the system will send the notification to the buyer.
In the case of accepting the order, if the supplier raises the unit price of goods, the system needs to notify the buyer to reconfirm the updated order. The confirmation results in one of the following:
• If the buyer accepts the updated order, the system automatically generates the final purchase order.
• If the buyer does not accept the updated order, the system sends the notification to the supplier and the purchase order process is halted.
Otherwise, the buyer does not need to confirm the order and the system automatically generates the formal purchase order.
Generate Order subprocess
The generation of the formal purchase order is a subprocess embedded in the main purchase order process, as shown in Figure 10. Upon receiving the final purchase order from the above purchase order process, the subprocess initiates the following tasks:
1. Calculate the final total price of the goods for the order
2. Select a shipper for the order.
3. Schedule the shipment.
4. Send notification to both the buyer and supplier.

Figure 10. Generate Order subprocess

Defining business data types
Variables are used to capture the business data that is passed from step to step in a process. When you develop a Business Process Definition in Lombardi, you should spend time creating data models for the BPD during the design phase.
In our Purchase Order scenario, one important data type, Order, is defined to describe the purchase order. The variable typeOrder includes two parameters: orderHead (the cardinality is 1) and orderDetail (which is a List). The OrderHead andOrderDetail variable types and parameters are shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Variable Type: OrderHead
Parameter name Variable type Description Is List
orderId String The number of the current purchase order head False
orderName String The name of the current purchase order False
buyer String The buyer of the current purchase order False
orderDate Date The begin date of the current purchase order False
supplierName String The supplier name of the current purchase order False
supplierContact String The supplier contact info of the current purchase order False
orderCloseDate Date The closed date of the current purchase order False
status String The status of the purchase order, for example, Accepted by supplier, Rejected by supplier, and so on. False

Table 2. Variable Type: OrderDetail
Parameter name Variable type Description Is List
orderItemId String The code of each purchase order detail False
orderId String The number of the current purchase order head False
shipDate Date Shipment date False
productNumber String The product number False
quantity Decimal The quantity of the product False
unitPrice Decimal The unit price of the product False
updatedQuantity Decimal The updated quantity of the product False
updatedUnitPrice Decimal The updated unit price of the product False

Back to top
This article provided an overview of WebSphere Lombardi V7.1, including it’s architecture, components, and features. In Part 2, you’ll learn how use Lombardi to model a process using a purchase order scenario.

• IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition 7.1.0 Information Center: Get complete production documentation.
• WebSphere Lombardi edition: Get product information, including features and benefits, how to buy, training, support, services, and more.
• BPMN web site: Get information on BPMN specifications, papers, and more.
• Introduction to BPMN: A high-level overview and introduction to the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN).
• BPMN and Business Process Management: Introduction to the New Business Process Modeling Standard: This paper provides an in-depth introduction to the BPMN standard, illustrating how it is used to model business processes and web services. The paper also provides detail on how BPMN fits within BPM, BPEL’s, BPMS’s, UML and other new industry standards and initiatives.
• developerWorks BPM zone: Get the latest technical resources on IBM BPM solutions, including downloads, demos, articles, tutorials, events, webcasts, and more.
writer – Xi Ning Wang and Lei (Joyce)

Types of ERP Software

Types of ERP –

SAP R/3 is software from SAP. SAP is a world’s leading provider of business software. SAP software runs in more than 120 countries world wide with more than 86000 customers. SAP solution is transforming your business process into a best-run business. SAP services are so good; they provide superior services and supports.

SAP B1 (business one) software is also form SAP. It is made for SME (small and medium enterprise) segment to fulfill their requirement at lower cost. SAP B1 localization is quite good. It contains 15 core modules. Report module is discontinued in 2009 due to purchase of Business Object, XL Reporter and Crystal Reports 2008 Basic(One Free License per customer)

LN/BaaN is software from Infor Global offers the breadth and depth of support for order-driven, project-based discrete manufacturing. It increase user productivity, operational efficiency, better control of processes, better communication and collaboration, enhance performance and scalability, leverage IT infrastructure and information assets and reduce costs. LN is ideal for companies in make-to-stock, assemble-to-order, make-to-order, or engineer-to-order environments.

Microsoft Dynamics AX 2009 (Microsoft Axapta) is a comprehensive enterprise solution for mid-sized and larger organizations to help people improve productivity. Microsoft Dynamics ERP applications and services made for retailers, manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and service companies, doing business domestically or in multiple countries.

Microsoft Dynamics NAV (Microsoft Navision) is an ERP software to assist with finance, manufacturing, CRM (customer relationship management), SCM (supply chain management), analytics and e-commerce for small and medium-sized enterprises.

JD Edward EnterpriseOne is an integrated applications suite of comprehensive enterprise resource planning software from Oracle that combines business value, standards-based technology, and deep industry experience into a business solution with a low total cost of ownership.

Oracle E-Business Suite Financials is easy to operate shared services across businesses and regions. It delivers pre-integrated financial and industry-specific processes. It provides consistent financial and operational information, dynamic planning, budgeting and forecasting, multi-dimensional profitability analysis, etc.

Oracle PeopleSoft Enterprise applications are designed for the most complex business requirements. They provide comprehensive business and industry solutions, enabling organizations to significantly improve performance, seamlessly integrate Web services into heterogeneous application environments, and a broad choice of technology infrastructure.

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